The tremendous evolution of programmable graphics hardware has made high-quality real-time volume graphics a reality. In addition to the traditional application of rendering volume data in scientific visualization, the interest in applying these techniques for real-time rendering of atmospheric phenomena and participating media such as fire, smoke, and clouds is growing rapidly. This course covers both applications in scientific visualization, e.g., medical volume data, and real-time rendering, such as advanced effects and illumination in computer games, in detail. Course participants will learn techniques for harnessing the power of consumer graphics hardware and high-level shading languages for real-time rendering of volumetric data and effects. Beginning with basic texture-based approaches including hardware ray casting, the algorithms are improved and expanded incrementally, covering local and global illumination, scattering, pre-integration, implicit surfaces and non-polygonal isosurfaces, transfer function design, volume animation and deformation, dealing with large volumes, high-quality volume clipping, rendering segmented volumes, higher-order filtering, and non-photorealistic volume rendering. Course participants are provided with documented source code covering details usually omitted in publications.